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Base64.java

package gnu.crypto.util;

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// $Id: Base64.java,v 1.3 2003/12/25 02:04:01 uid66198 Exp $
//
// This file is part of GNU Crypto.
//
// GNU Crypto is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
// it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
// the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
// any later version.
//
// GNU Crypto is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
// WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
// General Public License for more details.
//
// You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
// along with this program; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the
//
//    Free Software Foundation Inc.,
//    59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
//    Boston, MA 02111-1307
//    USA
//
// Linking this library statically or dynamically with other modules is
// making a combined work based on this library.  Thus, the terms and
// conditions of the GNU General Public License cover the whole
// combination.
//
// As a special exception, the copyright holders of this library give
// you permission to link this library with independent modules to
// produce an executable, regardless of the license terms of these
// independent modules, and to copy and distribute the resulting
// executable under terms of your choice, provided that you also meet,
// for each linked independent module, the terms and conditions of the
// license of that module.  An independent module is a module which is
// not derived from or based on this library.  If you modify this
// library, you may extend this exception to your version of the
// library, but you are not obligated to do so.  If you do not wish to
// do so, delete this exception statement from your version.
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;

/**
 * Most of this implementation is from Robert Harder's public domain Base64
 * code (version 1.4.1 available from <http://iharder.net/xmlizable>).
 *
 * @version $Revision: 1.3 $
 */
00053 public class Base64 {

   // Debugging methods and variables
   // -------------------------------------------------------------------------

   private static final String NAME = "Base64";
   private static final boolean DEBUG = true;
   private static final int debuglevel = 9;
   private static final PrintWriter err = new PrintWriter(System.out, true);
   private static void debug(String s) {
      err.println(">>> "+NAME+": "+s);
   }

   // Constants and variables
   // -------------------------------------------------------------------------

    /** Maximum line length (76) of Base64 output. */
00070     private static final int MAX_LINE_LENGTH = 76;

    /** The new line character (\n) as one byte. */
00073     private static final byte NEW_LINE = (byte) '\n';

    /** The equals sign (=) as a byte. */
00076     private static final byte EQUALS_SIGN = (byte) '=';

    private static final byte WHITE_SPACE_ENC = -5; // white space in encoding
    private static final byte EQUALS_SIGN_ENC = -1; // equals sign in encoding

    /** The 64 valid Base64 values. */
00082     private static final byte[] ALPHABET = {
      (byte)'A', (byte)'B', (byte)'C', (byte)'D', (byte)'E', (byte)'F', (byte)'G',
      (byte)'H', (byte)'I', (byte)'J', (byte)'K', (byte)'L', (byte)'M', (byte)'N',
      (byte)'O', (byte)'P', (byte)'Q', (byte)'R', (byte)'S', (byte)'T', (byte)'U',
      (byte)'V', (byte)'W', (byte)'X', (byte)'Y', (byte)'Z',
      (byte)'a', (byte)'b', (byte)'c', (byte)'d', (byte)'e', (byte)'f', (byte)'g',
      (byte)'h', (byte)'i', (byte)'j', (byte)'k', (byte)'l', (byte)'m', (byte)'n',
      (byte)'o', (byte)'p', (byte)'q', (byte)'r', (byte)'s', (byte)'t', (byte)'u',
      (byte)'v', (byte)'w', (byte)'x', (byte)'y', (byte)'z',
      (byte)'0', (byte)'1', (byte)'2', (byte)'3', (byte)'4', (byte)'5',
      (byte)'6', (byte)'7', (byte)'8', (byte)'9', (byte)'+', (byte)'/'
    };

   /**
    * Translates a Base64 value to either its 6-bit reconstruction value or a
    * negative number indicating some other meaning.
    */
00099    private static final byte[] DECODABET = {
      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                 // Decimal  0 -  8
      -5,-5,                                      // Whitespace: Tab and Linefeed
      -9,-9,                                      // Decimal 11 - 12
      -5,                                         // Whitespace: Carriage Return
      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 14 - 26
      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                             // Decimal 27 - 31
      -5,                                         // Whitespace: Space
      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,              // Decimal 33 - 42
      62,                                         // Plus sign at decimal 43
      -9,-9,-9,                                   // Decimal 44 - 46
      63,                                         // Slash at decimal 47
      52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,              // Numbers zero through nine
      -9,-9,-9,                                   // Decimal 58 - 60
      -1,                                         // Equals sign at decimal 61
      -9,-9,-9,                                   // Decimal 62 - 64
      0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,            // Letters 'A' through 'N'
      14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,        // Letters 'O' through 'Z'
      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                          // Decimal 91 - 96
      26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,     // Letters 'a' through 'm'
      39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,     // Letters 'n' through 'z'
      -9,-9,-9,-9                                 // Decimal 123 - 126
   };

   // Constructor(s)
   // -------------------------------------------------------------------------

   /** Trivial private ctor to enfore Singleton pattern. */
00127    private Base64() {
      super();
   }

   // Class methods
   // -------------------------------------------------------------------------

   /**
    * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation. Equivalent to calling
    * <code>encode(source, 0, source.length)</code>.
    *
    * @param src the data to convert.
    */
00140    public static final String encode(final byte[] src) {
      return encode(src, 0, src.length, true);
   }

   /**
    * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation.
    *
    * @param src the data to convert.
    * @param off offset in array where conversion should begin.
    * @param len length of data to convert.
    * @param breakLines break lines at 80 characters or less.
    */
00152    public static final String encode(final byte[] src, final int off,
                                     final int len, final boolean breakLines) {
      final int len43 = len * 4 / 3;
      final byte[] outBuff = new byte[
            len43 // Main 4:3
            + ((len % 3) > 0 ? 4 : 0) // Account for padding
            + (breakLines ? (len43 / MAX_LINE_LENGTH ) : 0)]; // New lines
      int d = 0;
      int e = 0;
      final int len2 = len - 2;
      int lineLength = 0;
      for ( ; d < len2; d += 3, e += 4) {
         encode3to4(src, d + off, 3, outBuff, e);
         lineLength += 4;
         if (breakLines && lineLength == MAX_LINE_LENGTH) {
            outBuff[e + 4] = NEW_LINE;
            e++;
            lineLength = 0;
         }
      }

      if (d < len) { // padding needed
         encode3to4(src, d + off, len - d, outBuff, e);
         e += 4;
      }

      return new String(outBuff, 0, e);
   }

   /**
    * Decodes data from Base64 notation.
    *
    * @param s the string to decode.
    * @return the decoded data.
    */
00187    public static final byte[] decode(final String s)
   throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
      final byte[] bytes;
      bytes = s.getBytes("US-ASCII");
      return decode(bytes, 0, bytes.length);
   }

   /**
    * Decodes Base64 content in byte array format and returns the decoded byte
    * array.
    *
    * @param src the Base64 encoded data.
    * @param off the offset of where to begin decoding.
    * @param len the length of characters to decode.
    * @return the decoded data.
    * @throws IllegalArgumentException if <code>src</code> contains an illegal
    * Base-64 character.
    */
00205    public static byte[] decode(final byte[] src, final int off, final int len) {
      final int len34 = len * 3 / 4;
      final byte[] outBuff = new byte[len34]; // Upper limit on size of output
      int outBuffPosn = 0;
      final byte[] b4 = new byte[4];
      int b4Posn = 0;
      int i;
      byte sbiCrop, sbiDecode;
      for (i = off; i < off + len; i++) {
         sbiCrop = (byte)(src[i] & 0x7F); // Only the low seven bits
         sbiDecode = DECODABET[sbiCrop];
         if (sbiDecode >= WHITE_SPACE_ENC) { // White space, Equals sign or better
            if (sbiDecode >= EQUALS_SIGN_ENC) {
               b4[b4Posn++] = sbiCrop;
               if (b4Posn > 3) {
                  outBuffPosn += decode4to3(b4, 0, outBuff, outBuffPosn);
                  b4Posn = 0;
                  // If that was the equals sign, break out of 'for' loop
                  if (sbiCrop == EQUALS_SIGN)
                     break;
               } // end if: quartet built
            } // end if: equals sign or better
         } else {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                  "Illegal BASE-64 character at #"+i+": "+src[i]+"(decimal)");
         }
      }

      final byte[] result = new byte[outBuffPosn];
      System.arraycopy(outBuff, 0, result, 0, outBuffPosn);
      return result;
   }

   /**
    * <p>Encodes up to three bytes of the array <code>src</code> and writes
    * the resulting four Base64 bytes to <code>dest</code>. The source and
    * destination arrays can be manipulated anywhere along their length by
    * specifying <code>sOffset</code> and <code>dOffset</code>.</p>
    *
    * <p>This method does not check to make sure the arrays are large enough to
    * accomodate <code>sOffset + 3</code> for the <code>src</code> array or
    * <code>dOffset + 4</code> for the <code>dest</code> array. The actual
    * number of significant bytes in the input array is given by
    * <code>numBytes</code>.</p>
    *
    * @param src the array to convert.
    * @param sOffset the index where conversion begins.
    * @param numBytes the number of significant bytes in your array.
    * @param dest the array to hold the conversion.
    * @param dOffset the index where output will be put.
    * @return the <code>destination</code> array.
    */
   private static final byte[]
00258    encode3to4(final byte[] src, final int sOffset, final int numBytes,
              final byte[] dest, final int dOffset) {
      //           1         2         3
      // 01234567890123456789012345678901 Bit position
      // --------000000001111111122222222 Array position from threeBytes
      // --------|    ||    ||    ||    | Six bit groups to index ALPHABET
      //          >>18  >>12  >> 6  >> 0  Right shift necessary
      //                0x3F  0x3F  0x3F  Additional AND

      // Create buffer with zero-padding if there are only one or two
      // significant bytes passed in the array.
      // We have to shift left 24 in order to flush out the 1's that appear
      // when Java treats a value as negative that is cast from a byte to an int.
      final int inBuff =
            (  numBytes > 0 ? ((src[sOffset    ] << 24) >>>  8) : 0)
            | (numBytes > 1 ? ((src[sOffset + 1] << 24) >>> 16) : 0)
            | (numBytes > 2 ? ((src[sOffset + 2] << 24) >>> 24) : 0);
      switch (numBytes) {
      case 3:
         dest[dOffset    ] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 18)       ];
         dest[dOffset + 1] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3F];
         dest[dOffset + 2] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>>  6) & 0x3F];
         dest[dOffset + 3] = ALPHABET[(inBuff       ) & 0x3F];
         break;
      case 2:
         dest[dOffset    ] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 18)       ];
         dest[dOffset + 1] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3F];
         dest[dOffset + 2] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>>  6) & 0x3F];
         dest[dOffset + 3] = EQUALS_SIGN;
         break;
      case 1:
         dest[dOffset    ] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 18)       ];
         dest[dOffset + 1] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3F];
         dest[dOffset + 2] = EQUALS_SIGN;
         dest[dOffset + 3] = EQUALS_SIGN;
         break;
      }
      return dest;
   }

   /**
    * <p>Decodes four bytes from array <code>src</code> and writes the
    * resulting bytes (up to three of them) to <code>dest</code>.</p>
    *
    * <p>The source and destination arrays can be manipulated anywhere along
    * their length by specifying <code>sOffset</code> and <code>dOffset</code>.
    * </p>
    *
    * <p>This method does not check to make sure your arrays are large enough
    * to accomodate <code>sOffset + 4</code> for the <code>src</code> array or
    * <code>dOffset + 3</code> for the <code>dest</code> array. This method
    * returns the actual number of bytes that were converted from the Base64
    * encoding.</p>
    *
    * @param src the array to convert.
    * @param sOffset the index where conversion begins.
    * @param dest the array to hold the conversion.
    * @param dOffset the index where output will be put.
    * @return the number of decoded bytes converted.
    */
00318    private static final int decode4to3(final byte[] src, final int sOffset,
                                       final byte[] dest, final int dOffset) {
      if (src[sOffset + 2] == EQUALS_SIGN) { // Example: Dk==
         final int outBuff = ((DECODABET[src[sOffset    ]] & 0xFF) << 18)
                           | ((DECODABET[src[sOffset + 1]] & 0xFF) << 12);
         dest[dOffset] = (byte)(outBuff >>> 16);
         return 1;
      }

      if (src[sOffset + 3] == EQUALS_SIGN) { // Example: DkL=
         final int outBuff = ((DECODABET[src[sOffset    ]] & 0xFF) << 18)
                           | ((DECODABET[src[sOffset + 1]] & 0xFF) << 12)
                           | ((DECODABET[src[sOffset + 2]] & 0xFF) <<  6);
         dest[dOffset    ] = (byte)(outBuff >>> 16);
         dest[dOffset + 1] = (byte)(outBuff >>>  8);
         return 2;
      }

      try { // Example: DkLE
         final int outBuff = ((DECODABET[src[sOffset    ]] & 0xFF) << 18)
                           | ((DECODABET[src[sOffset + 1]] & 0xFF) << 12)
                           | ((DECODABET[src[sOffset + 2]] & 0xFF) <<  6)
                           | ((DECODABET[src[sOffset + 3]] & 0xFF)      );
         dest[dOffset    ] = (byte)(outBuff >> 16);
         dest[dOffset + 1] = (byte)(outBuff >>  8);
         dest[dOffset + 2] = (byte) outBuff;
         return 3;
      } catch (Exception x) {
         if (DEBUG && debuglevel > 8) {
            debug(""+src[sOffset  ]+": "+(DECODABET[src[sOffset    ]]));
            debug(""+src[sOffset+1]+": "+(DECODABET[src[sOffset + 1]]));
            debug(""+src[sOffset+2]+": "+(DECODABET[src[sOffset + 2]]));
            debug(""+src[sOffset+3]+": "+(DECODABET[src[sOffset + 3]]));
         }
         return -1;
      }
   }
}

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