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Cascade.java

package gnu.crypto.assembly;

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// $Id: Cascade.java,v 1.7 2003/06/03 10:48:01 raif Exp $
//
// Copyright (C) 2003, Free Software Foundation, Inc.
//
// This file is part of GNU Crypto.
//
// GNU Crypto is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
// it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
// the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
// any later version.
//
// GNU Crypto is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
// WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
// General Public License for more details.
//
// You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
// along with this program; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the
//
//    Free Software Foundation Inc.,
//    59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
//    Boston, MA 02111-1307
//    USA
//
// Linking this library statically or dynamically with other modules is
// making a combined work based on this library.  Thus, the terms and
// conditions of the GNU General Public License cover the whole
// combination.
//
// As a special exception, the copyright holders of this library give
// you permission to link this library with independent modules to
// produce an executable, regardless of the license terms of these
// independent modules, and to copy and distribute the resulting
// executable under terms of your choice, provided that you also meet,
// for each linked independent module, the terms and conditions of the
// license of that module.  An independent module is a module which is
// not derived from or based on this library.  If you modify this
// library, you may extend this exception to your version of the
// library, but you are not obligated to do so.  If you do not wish to
// do so, delete this exception statement from your version.
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

import java.math.BigInteger;
import java.security.InvalidKeyException;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Set;

/**
 * <p>A <i>Cascade</i> Cipher is the concatenation of two or more block ciphers
 * each with independent keys. Plaintext is input to the first stage; the output
 * of stage <code>i</code> is input to stage <code>i + 1</code>; and the output
 * of the last stage is the <i>Cascade</i>'s ciphertext output.</p>
 *
 * <p>In the simplest case, all stages in a <code>Cascade</code> have <i>k</i>-bit
 * keys, and the stage inputs and outputs are all n-bit quantities. The stage
 * ciphers may differ (general cascade of ciphers), or all be identical (cascade
 * of identical ciphers).</p>
 *
 * <p>The term "block ciphers" used above refers to implementations of
 * {@link gnu.crypto.mode.IMode}, including the {@link gnu.crypto.mode.ECB}
 * mode which basically exposes a symmetric-key block cipher algorithm as a
 * <i>Mode</i> of Operations.</p>
 *
 * <p>References:</p>
 *
 * <ol>
 *    <li><a href="http://www.cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/hac">[HAC]</a>: Handbook of
 *    Applied Cryptography.<br>
 *    CRC Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8493-8523-7, 1997<br>
 *    Menezes, A., van Oorschot, P. and S. Vanstone.</li>
 * </ol>
 *
 * @version $Revision: 1.7 $
 */
00083 public class Cascade {

   // Constants and variables
   // -------------------------------------------------------------------------

   public static final String DIRECTION = "gnu.crypto.assembly.cascade.direction";

   /** The map of Stages chained in this cascade. */
00091    protected HashMap stages;

   /** The ordered list of Stage UIDs to their attribute maps. */
00094    protected LinkedList stageKeys;

   /** The current operational direction of this instance. */
00097    protected Direction wired;

   /** The curently set block-size for this instance. */
00100    protected int blockSize;

   // Constructor(s)
   // -------------------------------------------------------------------------

   public Cascade() {
      super();

      stages = new HashMap(3);
      stageKeys = new LinkedList();
      wired = null;
      blockSize = 0;
   }

   // Class methods
   // -------------------------------------------------------------------------

   /**
    * Returns the Least Common Multiple of two integers.
    *
    * @param a the first integer.
    * @param b the second integer.
    * @return the LCM of <code>abs(a)</code> and <code>abs(b)</code>.
    */
00124    private static final int lcm(int a, int b) {
      BigInteger A = BigInteger.valueOf(a * 1L);
      BigInteger B = BigInteger.valueOf(b * 1L);
      return A.multiply(B).divide(A.gcd(B)).abs().intValue();
   }

   // Instance methods
   // -------------------------------------------------------------------------

   /**
    * Adds to the end of the current chain, a designated {@link Stage}.
    *
    * @param stage the {@link Stage} to append to the chain.
    * @return a unique identifier for this stage, within this cascade.
    * @throws IllegalStateException if the instance is already initialised.
    * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the designated stage is already in
    * the chain, or it has incompatible characteristics with the current
    * elements already in the chain.
    */
00143    public Object append(Stage stage) throws IllegalArgumentException {
      return insert(size(), stage);
   }

   /**
    * Adds to the begining of the current chain, a designated {@link Stage}.
    *
    * @param stage the {@link Stage} to prepend to the chain.
    * @return a unique identifier for this stage, within this cascade.
    * @throws IllegalStateException if the instance is already initialised.
    * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the designated stage is already in
    * the chain, or it has incompatible characteristics with the current
    * elements already in the chain.
    */
00157    public Object prepend(Stage stage) throws IllegalArgumentException {
      return insert(0, stage);
   }

   /**
    * Inserts a {@link Stage} into the current chain, at the specified index
    * (zero-based) position.
    *
    * @param stage the {@link Stage} to insert into the chain.
    * @return a unique identifier for this stage, within this cascade.
    * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the designated stage is already in
    * the chain, or it has incompatible characteristics with the current
    * elements already in the chain.
    * @throws IllegalStateException if the instance is already initialised.
    * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if <code>index</code> is less than
    * <code>0</code> or greater than the current size of this cascade.
    */
00174    public Object insert(int index, Stage stage)
   throws IllegalArgumentException, IndexOutOfBoundsException {
      if (stages.containsValue(stage)) {
         throw new IllegalArgumentException();
      }
      if (wired != null || stage == null) {
         throw new IllegalStateException();
      }

      if (index < 0 || index > size()) {
         throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
      }

      // check that there is a non-empty set of common block-sizes
      Set set = stage.blockSizes();
      if (stages.isEmpty()) {
         if (set.isEmpty()) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("1st stage with no block sizes");
         }
      } else {
         Set common = this.blockSizes();
         common.retainAll(set);
         if (common.isEmpty()) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("no common block sizes found");
         }
      }

      Object result = new Object();
      stageKeys.add(index, result);
      stages.put(result, stage);

      return result;
   }

   /**
    * Returns the current number of stages in this chain.
    *
    * @return the current count of stages in this chain.
    */
00213    public int size() {
      return stages.size();
   }

   /**
    * Returns an {@link Iterator} over the stages contained in this instance.
    * Each element of this iterator is a concrete implementation of a {@link
    * Stage}.
    *
    * @return an {@link Iterator} over the stages contained in this instance.
    * Each element of the returned iterator is a concrete instance of a {@link
    * Stage}.
    */
00226    public Iterator stages() {
      LinkedList result = new LinkedList();
      for (Iterator it = stageKeys.listIterator(); it.hasNext(); ) {
         result.addLast(stages.get(it.next()));
      }
      return result.listIterator();
   }

   /**
    * Returns the {@link Set} of supported block sizes for this
    * <code>Cascade</code> that are common to all of its chained stages. Each
    * element in the returned {@link Set} is an instance of {@link Integer}.
    *
    * @return a {@link Set} of supported block sizes common to all the stages
    * of the chain.
    */
00242    public Set blockSizes() {
      HashSet result = null;
      for (Iterator it = stages.values().iterator(); it.hasNext(); ) {
         Stage aStage = (Stage) it.next();
         if (result == null) { // first time
            result = new HashSet(aStage.blockSizes());
         } else {
            result.retainAll(aStage.blockSizes());
         }
      }
      return result == null ? Collections.EMPTY_SET : result;
   }

   /**
    * Initialises the chain for operation with specific characteristics.
    *
    * @param attributes a set of name-value pairs that describes the desired
    * future behaviour of this instance.
    * @throws IllegalStateException if the chain, or any of its stages, is
    * already initialised.
    * @throws InvalidKeyException if the intialisation data provided with the
    * stage is incorrect or causes an invalid key to be generated.
    * @see Direction#FORWARD
    * @see Direction#REVERSED
    */
00267    public void init(Map attributes) throws InvalidKeyException {
      if (wired != null) {
         throw new IllegalStateException();
      }
      Direction flow = (Direction) attributes.get(DIRECTION);
      if (flow == null) {
         flow = Direction.FORWARD;
      }

      int optimalSize = 0;
      for (Iterator it = stageKeys.listIterator(); it.hasNext(); ) {
         Object id = it.next();
         Map attr = (Map) attributes.get(id);
         attr.put(Stage.DIRECTION, flow);
         Stage stage = (Stage) stages.get(id);
         stage.init(attr);
         optimalSize = optimalSize == 0
               ? stage.currentBlockSize()
               : lcm(optimalSize, stage.currentBlockSize());
      }

      if (flow == Direction.REVERSED) { // reverse order
         Collections.reverse(stageKeys);
      }
      wired = flow;
      blockSize = optimalSize;
   }

   /**
    * Returns the currently set block size for the chain.
    *
    * @return the current block size for the chain.
    * @throws IllegalStateException if the instance is not initialised.
    */
00301    public int currentBlockSize() {
      if (wired == null) {
         throw new IllegalStateException();
      }
      return blockSize;
   }

   /**
    * Resets the chain for re-initialisation and use with other characteristics.
    * This method always succeeds.
    */
00312    public void reset() {
      for (Iterator it = stageKeys.listIterator(); it.hasNext(); ) {
         ((Stage) stages.get(it.next())).reset();
      }
      if (wired == Direction.REVERSED) { // reverse it back
         Collections.reverse(stageKeys);
      }
      wired = null;
      blockSize = 0;
   }

   /**
    * Processes exactly one block of <i>plaintext</i> (if initialised in the
    * {@link Direction#FORWARD} state) or <i>ciphertext</i> (if initialised in the
    * {@link Direction#REVERSED} state).
    *
    * @param in the plaintext.
    * @param inOffset index of <code>in</code> from which to start considering
    * data.
    * @param out the ciphertext.
    * @param outOffset index of <code>out</code> from which to store result.
    * @throws IllegalStateException if the instance is not initialised.
    */
00335    public void update(byte[] in, int inOffset, byte[] out, int outOffset) {
      if (wired == null) {
         throw new IllegalStateException();
      }
      int stageBlockSize, j, i = stages.size();
      for (Iterator it = stageKeys.listIterator(); it.hasNext(); ) {
         Stage stage = (Stage) stages.get(it.next());
         stageBlockSize = stage.currentBlockSize();
         for (j = 0; j < blockSize; j += stageBlockSize) {
            stage.update(in, inOffset+j, out, outOffset+j);
         }
         i--;
         if (i > 0) {
            System.arraycopy(out, outOffset, in, inOffset, blockSize);
         }
      }
   }

   /**
    * Conducts a simple <i>correctness</i> test that consists of basic symmetric
    * encryption / decryption test(s) for all supported block and key sizes of
    * underlying block cipher(s) wrapped by Mode leafs. The test also includes
    * one (1) variable key Known Answer Test (KAT) for each block cipher.
    *
    * @return <code>true</code> if the implementation passes simple
    * <i>correctness</i> tests. Returns <code>false</code> otherwise.
    */
00362    public boolean selfTest() {
      for (Iterator it = stageKeys.listIterator(); it.hasNext(); ) {
         if (! ((Stage) stages.get(it.next())).selfTest()) {
            return false;
         }
      }
      return true;
   }
}

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